Product placement, or embedded marketing, is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. In April 2006, Broadcasting & Cable reported, "Two thirds of advertisers employ 'branded entertainment'—product placement—with the vast majority of that (80%) in commercial TV programming." The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said "Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from 'stronger emotional connection' to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group
Product placement refers to the practice of including a brand name product, Package e, signage or other trademark merchandise within a motion picture, television or other media vehicles for increasing the memorability of the brand and for instant recognition at the point of purchase. Product placements are commercial insertions within a particular media program intended to heighten the visibility of a brand, type of product or service. These insertions are not meant to be commercial break ups rather an integral part of the medium so that the visibility of the brand increases. Attempts are made for the viewer to read the product or the brand as a quality of the characters using and approving it. Researchers have shown that viewers like product placements (unless there are too many) because they enhance realism, aid in character development, create historical subtext, and provide a sense of familiarity. For marketers, the availability of a captive audience with greater reach than traditional advertisements, and the advantage of showing brands in their natural environment provide motivation for product placements (Turcotte, 1995)1.
Product placement dates back to the nineteenth century in publishing. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) he was a world-renowned literary giant to the extent transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned in the story as it was published in serial form; however if he was actually paid to do so remains unknown. Product placement is still used in books to some extent, particularly in novels. Recent scholarship in film and media studies has drawn attention to the fact that product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions that characterised the first ten years of cinema history    Placement in movies
Recognizable brand names appeared in movies from cinemas earliest history. Before films were even narrative forms in the sense that they are recognised today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning has described as "cinematic attractions" these were short films of no longer than one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film history (1895-1907) audiences did not go to see films as narrative art forms but as fairground attractions interesting for the amazing visual effects they appeared to be. This format was much better suited to product placement than the narrative form of cinema that came later when film making became a more organised industry. Taking this as a starting point, Leon Gurevitch has argued that early cinematic attractions share more in common with the adverts that emerged from the television industry in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggests that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is more intertwined than previous historians have credited, suggesting that the birth of cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic kickstart that it provided early film makers. Kerry Segrave details the industries that advertised in these early films and goes...
References: 5. ^[unreliable source?] Staff writer (April 7, 2009) "Product Placement". SourceWatch. Accessed September 2, 2010.
6. ^ William Butcher (translation and introduction). Around the World in Eighty Days, Oxford Worlds Classics, 1995, Introduction.
7. ^ See especially Gurevitch, Leon. (2010). The Cinemas of Transactions: The exchangeable currency of GC attractions across audiovisual economies, Journal of Television and New Media, Sage Publications, New York, 11 (5), 367-385.
8. ^ Gurevitch, L. (2009). Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship, Journal of Popular Narrative Media, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158.
11. ^ Gurevitch, L. (2009). Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship, Journal of Popular Narrative Media, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158.
12. ^ Kerry Segrave. Product Placement in Hollywood Films: A History. McFarland, 2004.
13. ^ Harrison 's Reports. January 17, 1920, page 9.
15. ^ Harrison 's Reports. September 12, 1925, page 148.
16. ^ Harrison 's Reports; October 8, 1949, page 162.
20. ^[dead link]Bryan, Saint (December 11, 2003). "Peddling Products in Movies". KGW.
23. ^ Scribes chase blurb bonanza: Product placement perturbs WGA, DAVE MCNARY, Variety, November 13, 2005
24. ^ Product Placement Dipped Last Year for First Time, Andrew Hampp, AdvertisingAge, June 29, 2010
25. ^ Tata, Nadja (2006). Product Placement in James-Bond-Filmen (in German language). VDM Verlag (Saarbrücken, Germany). ISBN 9783865504401.
26. ^ "Apple Gets a Big Slice of Product-Placement Pie". The Washington Post. April 15, 2006.
29. ^ Videogames and Politics, Šisler, Vít. In EnterMultimediale 2, International Festival of Art and New Technologies, Praha: CIANT, 2005, p. 38 – 40. ISBN 80-239-4927-6.
32. ^ The Corkscrew Diary
33. ^ Film Subsidy Game: Pensacola Filmmaker Trying To Capitalize, Tom Rousch, Pensacola Independent News, May 10, 2007
42. ^ In the Matter of Commission Policy Concerning the Noncommercial Nature of Educational Broadcasting from FCC 86-161 public notice of April 11, 1986
43. ^ WPBS-TV: Classical Stretch
44. ^ Classical Stretch/(La méthode Classical Stretch), Giancarlo La Giorgia, Canadian Health magazine/Canadian Medical Association
45. ^ Peckham, Matt (July 14, 2010)
47. ^ "Komik Melangkau Sempadan" (in Malay). Kosmo!. December 9, 2008. http://www.kosmo.com.my/kosmo/content.asp?y=2008&dt=1209&pub=Kosmo&sec=Rencana_Utama&pg=ru_01.htm. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
48. ^ Staff writer (January 22, 2009). "Migra Corridos Aim To Keep Immigrants Home". The Associated Press (via Daily News). Accessed September 4, 2010.
49. ^ Ceresole, Carlos (February 15, 2009). "US Uses Songs To Deter Immigrants".BBC Mundo. Accessed September 4, 2010.
52. ^ Morgan, Fiona (August 10, 2005). "Will the Latest Payola Scandal Shake Up the Radio and Music Industries?". Indyweek.
53. ^ Kurtz, Howard (May 25, 2005). "FCC Panelist Wants Probe of Product 'Payola '". The Washington Post.
54. ^ FCC’s Adelstein: Probe ‘Payola’, Ted Hearn, Multichannel News, May 30, 2005
55. ^ Reform groups want FCC to take on product placement epidemic, Matthew Lasar, ARStechnica, June 22, 2008
56. ^ Product Placements To Get A Closer Look by the FCC, Huffington Post, June 24, 2008
57. ^ a b Product placement ban on UK television to continue, guardian.co.uk, March 11, 2009
58. ^ Product placement for TV approved, bbc.co.uk, September 13, 2009
59. ^ I, Robot (2004) at Brandspotters.com.
64. ^ Advertisingindustrynewswire.com Criticism of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
65. ^ Agony Booth Discussion of The Island DVD Commentary Track. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
66. ^ Themoviespoiler.com Plot, product placements. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
69. ^ On '30 Rock, ' Tina Fey Draws From Her Past At 'SNL ', Access Hollywood, October 10, 2006
70. ^ 30 Rock 's Tina Fey Denies Product Placement for McDonalds
71. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070701/ap_on_bi_ge/7_eleven_kwik_e_mart_1 [broken link]
72. ^ "Locate A Kwik-E-Mart Near You", 7-eleven.com (archived, 2007)
73. ^ ADVERTISING; Fake Products and the Movies That Loved Them, Stuart Elliott, New York Times, January 9, 2006
74. ^ Lubbell, Sam (January 2, 2006)
75. ^ Cohen, Nancy (February 23, 2006). "Virtual Product Placement Infiltrates TV, Film, Games". E-Commerce Times.
76. ^ Kyllo, Blaine (September 1, 2005). "Ads Get Piece of the Action". The Georgia Straight.
77. ^ York, Emily Bryson (April 27, 2009). "Subway Caught Up in Fan Effort to Save NBC Series 'Chuck '". Advertising Age. http://adage.com/madisonandvine/article?article_id=136301. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
78. ^ France, Lisa Respers (April 30, 2009). " 'Save Chuck ' Latest in Campaigns To Rescue Favorite Shows". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/SHOWBIZ/TV/04/30/save.chuck.show/. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
79. ^ Bahar, Narin (April 27, 2009). "Chuck Flashmob Hits Birmingham". SFX. http://www.sfx.co.uk/page/sfx?entry=blog_chuck_flashmob_hits_birmingham. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document