Running head: DIGGING GOLD
Digging Gold Discussion Case Amritpal Kaur Wayne State University
Abstract This paper will discuss "Digging gold" case in detail and provide answers to various questions that arose after studying the case. This research will answer to :the types of pollutions that are generated by the gold mining companies, pollution effect on the environment, governmental regulations that would address the pollution problem, role of NGO'S (Non-governmental organizations) and citizens to reduce environmental effects of gold mining, and the companies who are less or more environmentally responsible. Generally, Gold mining is the process of mining gold from the ground.
Keywords: Environment, Digging gold, pollution, responsible
Gold is one of the most attractive and a highly valuable metal, known for decades. Gold is used in number of fields such as jewelry, dentistry, modern technological applications, in computer chips, lens surfaces, investments, setting currency value and so on.(R. James Weick, 1994).Gold is found widespread in various natural substances such as, sea water, earth's crust, sedimentary rocks rivers etc. However," its overall concentration is very low (about 5 milligrams per ton of rock), rich concentrations of gold, forming ore deposits, are known n throughout the world."(Dr. Bill Birch). Gold mostly exist with other metals. such as lead, zinc, silver or copper and sometimes found free in nature. Gold takes place in variety of forms such as: wire gold, nail gold, mustard gold , paint gold, disseminated, irregular grains, scales, plates and vein lets with microscopic dimensions, and as larger compact, reticulated, spongy or hackly masses or slugs.(Dr. Bill Birch). So Gold mining is the process of mining gold ores from the ground. It is done in two types: Open pit mining and underground mining. Gold Extraction procss
TYPES OF POLLUTION GENERATED BY GOLD MINING
Under the classification system presented in the section "Major Areas of Environmental Regulation" three pollution types are described, such as Air pollution, Land pollution and Water pollution. All these three pollutions are generated by the gold mining companies. Their effect on environment is discussed below: Air pollution: When pollutants are not diluted properly and are emitted into the atmosphere, called air pollution. The process used to extract metal, release very harmful toxins that cause pollution such as: Lead, Sulfur, Nitrogen, Mercury, Zinc, Cadmium, and Uranium. These toxins can result in number of diseases to workers and the local people. The inhalation of such toxins may cause impaired vision, muscle weakness, kidney damage, nerve damage, anemia, metal fume fever etc. (No dirty gold campaign). According to the US Toxics Release Inventory, the metal mining industry in the United States contributed the following, in 2010: * 92% of industrial mercury emissions
* 94% of industrial arsenic emissions
* 73% of known Carcinogenic waste
Water pollution: Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged into water bodies without the proper treatment to remove harmful compounds from water. Acid mine drainage, metal contamination, increased levels in streams are the major problems caused by mining to water. These problems affects domestic water supply, irrigation, swimming, fisheries, living organisms ,drinking and various other uses of streams. Acid rain ,caused by iron sulfide that mix with air and water, severe pollution hazard to ground water, surrounding soil and...
References: 1. R., James Weick. (1994). Natural Resources: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador- Canada. Geological Survey: Gold Occurrences.
2. Dr. Birch, Bill. Geology of Gold: Formation of Gold: Museum Victoria.
3. Prof. Kakharov, Abrol. (2013).Gold Extraction Process: Diagram.
4. Lawrence, A. & Weber, J. Business and Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy (14th Ed.) Managing Environmental Issues. McGraw Hill.
5. No DirtyGoldCampaign:AirImpact.http://nodirtygold.earthworksaction.org/impacts/air.
6. Wikipedia: Environmental Impact of Mining.
7. Mining: Pollution Issues. www.pollutionissues.com/Li-Na/Mining.html.
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