Observances of Stress responses have been dated as far back as to Hippocrates in 460-377B.C. but it was not till 1920 that Walter Cannon confirmed that the stress response is part of a unified mind-body system (Cannon, 1929) . Walter Cannon observed that extreme cold, lack of oxygen, and emotion-arousing incidents all trigger an outpouring of the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the central core of the adrenal glands ,When alerted by any of a number of brain pathways the sympathetic nervous system, increases heart rate and respiration, diverts blood from digestion to the skeletal muscles, dulls pain and releases sugar and fat from the body’s stores to prepare the body for the adaptive response that cannon called the “fight or flight” Stress is the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging .Stress arises less from events themselves than from how we appraise them (lazarus, 1998)A good example is the writing of this assignment for class, some writing this assignment Essay for class, can find it a challenge and be motivated(winning the fight) , (Blascovich, 2004) whereas others can find the same essay threatening and stressful, As they appraise it as risking failure in the assignment and the course ,especially if they missed class or were not prepared,(losing the fight) Another response is to freeze or withdraw and do nothing , an example of this is some classmates who put off the assignment and are absent on the day to turn it in.(Flight) These responses are an example of the most common response to stress and what Walter Cannon called the “fight or flight” response (Cannon, 1929).the second most common response is the “Tend and Befriend” response, (TaylorS.E., 2000) this response tend to be especially common among women, it is to seek and give support, as women more often respond to stress by nurturing and banding together . How stress responses may differ between men and women, facing stress men more often than women tend to socially withdraw, turn to alcohol, or become aggressive. Women on the other hand, more often respond to stress by nurturing and banding together which Taylor (Taylor S.E., 2000) attributes partly to oxytocin, a stress moderating hormone associated with pair-bonding in animals and released by cuddling, massage and breast-feeding in humans, I found a good example in Psychology Today (Dario Maestripieri, 2012 ) pretend You are walking alone in a dark alley late at night when, all of a sudden, you feel the barrel of a gun pressed to the back of your neck and hear a voice saying: "Give me your wallet or I will kill you." What do you do? The answer is: it depends on whether you are a man or a woman. If you are a man, you either run away as quick as you can or you turn around and punch the guy in the face. If you are a woman, you try to talk yourself out of the situation: "Are you sure you want to do this?" you ask the robber, or "If you put the gun away, we can talk about the situation and I will see what I can do to help you." According to some psychologists, this is the basic difference in the way men and women respond to social stress: for men, it's either "fight or flight" while for women it's "tend and befriend." (A)The particular hormones at play in the common stress responses are epinephrine and norepinephrine, glucocorticoid stress hormones such as cortisol, and oxytocin. Epinephrine and norepinephrine, are the hormones preparing you physically for the fight or flight response whereas the glucocorticoids are stress response hormones which works to restore the body to pre-stress levels (Marlene B. Goldman, Dec 31, 2012 ) and oxytocin, a stress moderating hormone associated with pair-bonding in animals and...
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